Metamaterials are new composite materials engineered to exhibit transcendental semiactive material properties that are neither observed in nature nor in the constituent materials in order to develop new technologies. The Greek word meta means beyond. Modern developments in this field are primarily inspired by Veselago’s theoretical work, in 1968, on left-handed materials that could cause an electromagnetic wave with its pointing vector to be opposite to its phase velocity, Smith’s experimental work on negative-index materials and an invisibility cloak in 2000, and Pendry’s work on a super lens in 2000. The transcendental properties of metamaterials are assumed to arise from their engineered assembly with artificially fabricated low dimensional inhomogeneity. This concept motivates engineers to dream and think beyond the constraints imposed by the performance limitations of conventional materials. With today’s unprecedented ability for numerical modeling and computation, three-dimensional (3-D) printing, and fabrication of nanoscale structures, researchers are bringing real metamaterials into the world.
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