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This chapter describes the structure, manufacturing technology, and characteristics of tissue phantoms used to test the methods and devices for optical diagnostics and dosimetry of laser and other optical radiation in a course of phototherapy. Phantoms that model the transport of visible and infrared light in tissue are needed to evaluate techniques, calibrate equipment, optimize diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and assure quality. Optical medical devices for imaging, diagnosis, and therapy, as well as all other medical equipment and technologies, should undergo a full cycle of research and development: from basic research to practical application in clinical settings (Fig. 6.1). The development of optical medical technology at all stages, from designing the concept to obtaining the necessary parameters, requires calibration and verification of designed tools and techniques. Optical medical devices should be completed by tissue phantoms for testing and optimization of device hardware and software, and a variety of applications; for training users to work on the equipment; and for providing comparability of measurement data obtained with different hardware and in different laboratories.
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