In this chapter, discrete particle models of tissues are presented. Optical models of biotissue with basic single and low-order scattering are analyzed, in which both orderly and randomly distributed scatterers are considered. As examples, three types of eye tissues are shown with different structure and turbidity, such as cornea, healthy or cataract lens, and sclera. Basic principles of transmission, reflection, and scattering spectra formation are discussed. The Mueller matrix element measurements applied for diagnostics and monitoring of biological tissue and cell pathology are presented.
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