Translation of knowledge from discovery to practice in any field of endeavor may seem like a basic part of the research progress. However, in reality, it is one of the biggest stumbling blocks in medicine and science. This hurdle has contributed to the limited impact of biomedical research in the commercialization of new therapies and diagnoses. Translational Research, as discussed in the previous chapter, is needed for new and relevant discoveries to be transitioned effectively and efficiently into benefits for the general public. Generally speaking, scientists doing discovery research are not trained to think in terms of clinical applications, and the clinicians are not often taught to formulate research questions based on clinical observations. Added to this mix are engineers with the ability to develop enabling technologies and tools needed by the clinicians and researchers for the advancement of medical discoveries, but often without an adequate understanding of the medical and clinical needs. It is critical to establish an ongoing relationship between the developers and the end users of a technology to streamline the transfer of discoveries and development of novel technologies into clinical practice in order to benefit public health. These developments rely on strong translational research collaborations between basic and clinical scientists to generate and translate novel approaches.
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