Access to eBooks is limited to institutions that have purchased or currently subscribe to the SPIE eBooks program. eBooks are not available via an individual subscription. SPIE books (print and digital) may be purchased individually on SPIE.Org.

Contact your librarian to recommend SPIE eBooks for your organization.
Geometrical optics, an old branch of optics, formulates optical laws in the language of geometry under the approximation that the scale of the wavelength of light, compared with that of the optical system on which light is incident, is close to zero. In the regime of geometrical optics, a fundamental concept is the optical ray. The feasibility of optical rays introduced in geometrical optics can be explained by quantum theory. According to the uncertainty principle in quantum theory, we cannot simultaneously measure the position (x, representing a position in the vertical direction) and the momentum (p, representing a momentum in the vertical direction) of a photon with arbitrarily high precision.
Online access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions.

Back to Top