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Wave optics, which deals with light as electromagnetic waves, is an important branch of optics. The main optical phenomena discussed in wave optics include diffraction, interference, and polarization of light. This chapter focuses on the basic knowledge of wave optics and its applications. First, the electromagnetic theory of optics is briefly introduced. Secondly, theories and examples of the diffraction and interference of light are given and explained. Next, a brief introduction of Fourier optics is presented. Then, wavefront aberration is introduced. Finally, the theoretical resolution limits of an optical imaging system are provided.
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