This Spotlight describes the use of optical phantoms as validation tools for probebased imaging and spectroscopy platforms. Composition of optical phantoms, including scattering and absorbing agents, is discussed in the context of their specific application. Next, requirements for designing optical phantoms for validation of small endoscopic instrumentation is presented including a discussion on the diffuse and sub-diffuse scattering regimes and how this relates to common types of epithelial tissue. This book concludes with a tutorial section for constructing solid phantoms to simulate thin epithelial tissue structure and liquid phantoms to extract tissue optical properties using probe-based reflectance spectroscopy techniques. For these applications, solid phantoms are made using poly(dimethylsiloxane) and liquid phantoms are made using deionized water as the substrate material. The scope of the chapter is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe the physics, instrumentation, or mathematical or computational modeling of the various techniques mentioned in detail.
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