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DNA sequencing has become a high-throughput process for determining the ordered base pairs in a strand of DNA. Manufacturing techniques, including statistical process control, are now routine. An example throughput metric is the number of DNA bases sequenced per day per dollar. Some sequencing centers report their daily and monthly production online. Commercial organizations such as Incyte Genomics ( and Celera Genomics ( have significant DNA sequencing capacity. Public sequencing activities for the Human Genome Project were mostly conducted in five large centers: the Sanger Center, the Washington University Genome Sequencing Center, the Department of Energy/University of California Laboratory Joint Genome Institute, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Baylor College of Medicine. There are several sites on the worldwide web that summarize DNA sequencing progress. The European Bionformatics Institute Genome Monitoring Table (MOT) page at is updated daily with sequencing progress for several eukaryotes. The Institute for Genome Research (TIGR) maintains a list of published microbial genomes and chromosomes at The NCBI also has a list of microbial DNA sequence, including completed microbial genomes from both archaea and bacteria.
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