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Chapter 2:
Basic Chemistry of DNQ/Novolak Resists
The inhibition of novolak dissolution by a diazonaphthoquinone sulfonate discussed in the introduction is only a little more than half the story: the formation of the readily soluble indene carboxylic acid photoproduct leads to a substantial increase of the dissolution rate even beyond that of the pure matrix resin. Both the novolak and DNQ structures in commercial materials have been optimized to maximize this effect; modern resists show a dissolution rate ratio of well over three orders of magnitude between exposed and unexposed resist regions with DNQ loadings of approx. 20% of solids.
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