This chapter strives to foster a basic understanding of how EMI instruments function. It does not present the detailed particulars of various specific instruments or their hardware, electrical engineering specs, or functioning (Section 5.4 provides a brief look at specific established and emerging instruments). The focus here is on the nature of the data and its meaning for the discrimination analyst; the intent is to devote enough attention to the workings of each instrument type to facilitate the calculations needed for discrimination processing. Emphasis is on how to model different instrument types and on how much modeling is necessary for classification. From the latter perspective, it is vital to connect data features to the specific character of sensor–target interaction. Virtually all discrimination requires the exercise of some form of forward model, and a sufficient rendering of the sensor–model interaction is an inescapable part of that.
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