Harvesting electrical energy from mechanical energy of a mechanical (host) system involves the use of transducers (electrical generators) such as those introduced in Chapter 2. In almost all cases an appropriate interfacing (“conditioning”) mechanism is needed for effective integration of the transducer with the source of mechanical energy, i.e., the host system. Such interfacing or conditioning mechanisms may for example be needed to amplify force or displacement or to increase or decrease input displacement or frequency of an input oscillatory motion. Hereinafter, the term interfacing mechanism is intended to refer to those devices that are used to transfer mechanical energy to the transducer, while in some cases performing certain motion and/or force conditioning action. In addition, motion is intended to refer to translational as well as rotational motions. The term “force” is used to also indicate couple, moment, and torque when appropriate. The transfer of mechanical energy to a transducer may be direct or through other intermediate elements in which the mechanical energy may, for example, be stored in the form of potential or kinetic energy and when needed (or a threshold is reached) be released to the transducer for conversion to electrical energy.
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