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Over the past few decades, OFSs, particularly FBG sensors, have attracted great interest and become useful measurement and monitoring devices in several fields. These sensors have been successfully employed to monitor parameters such as temperature, displacement, strain, acceleration, pressure, electrical current, voltage, and many more. As a popular option when dealing with compact OFSs, FBGs are formed by periodic modulations of the index of refraction of an optical fiber core in its longitudinal direction. These modulations can be achieved by different techniques, and some practical arrangements are discussed in Chapters 3 and 5. The basic working principle of Bragg gratings was discovered by chance in the late 1970s by a research group at the Canadian Communication Research Center, led by Dr. Kenneth O. Hill. This first approach paved the way for a number of enhancements and developments in the fabrication of FBGs during the 1980s and 1990s that now compose the fundamentals of various FBG applications.
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