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Chapter 2:
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Abstract
The most basic properties of an antenna are its radiation pattern, gain, impedance, and polarization. These properties are identical for linear passive antennas used either as a transmitter or receiver by virtue of the reciprocity theorem [1]. A complete definition of the terms used for antennas can be found in [2]. The radiation pattern is defined in [2] as the spatial distribution of a quantity that characterizes the electromagnetic field generated by an antenna. The field intensity of the propagating wave decreases by 1/R with distance R from the source. To understand how an antenna radiates, consider a pulse of electric charge moving along a straight conductor. A static electric charge or a charge moving with a uniform velocity does not radiate. However, when charges are accelerated along a conductor and are decelerated upon reflection from its end, radiated fields are produced along the wire and at each end. A detailed explanation of how an antenna radiates is given in [3-€“5].
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CHAPTER 2
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