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Chapter 2:
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
The most basic properties of an antenna are its radiation pattern, gain, impedance, and polarization. These properties are identical for linear passive antennas used either as a transmitter or receiver by virtue of the reciprocity theorem [1]. A complete definition of the terms used for antennas can be found in [2]. The radiation pattern is defined in [2] as the spatial distribution of a quantity that characterizes the electromagnetic field generated by an antenna. The field intensity of the propagating wave decreases by 1/R with distance R from the source. To understand how an antenna radiates, consider a pulse of electric charge moving along a straight conductor. A static electric charge or a charge moving with a uniform velocity does not radiate. However, when charges are accelerated along a conductor and are decelerated upon reflection from its end, radiated fields are produced along the wire and at each end. A detailed explanation of how an antenna radiates is given in [3-€“5].
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