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Elastic and inelastic scattering at single atoms and the excitation of electrons in solids are the basic processes influencing the range of electrons, the depth distribution of ionization, and the emission of secondary and backscattered electrons. These scattering processes can be used in Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories for comparing the results with experiments and for calculating angular, energy, and spatial distributions of backscattered and secondary electrons, for example, which cannot be measured without a larger experimental setup.
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