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Chapter 5:
Specimen Charging and Damage
Charging of insulators can result in a strong negative charging for high electron energies, resulting in charging artifacts. One of the advantages of LVSEM is weak positive charging for electron energies below a critical energy E2. The inelastic scattering processes result in heat generation and ionization processes that cause specimen damage, contamination, and exposure of resists in electronbeam lithography.
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