The differences in secondary-electron yields and backscattering coefficients at low energies changes the topographic and compositional contrast in LVSEM as compared to conventional SEM. The channeling contrast becomes more sensitive on contamination layers. The inspection of integrated circuits with low energies allows a submicron metrology and the measuring of surface potentials with through-lens spectrometers for secondary electrons. The magnetic contrast type 1 can be observed with a better signal-to-noise ratio, and the deflection by magnetic stray fields for measuring magnetic fields becomes more sensitive.
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