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The first part of this tutorial text discussed many of the standard approaches to image stabilization, focusing on optical correction for optical systems. Image-stabilization technology continues to grow and expand and new devices are constantly evolving. Two devices of particular interest are liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulators and orthogonal transfer CCDs. These devices are being introduced into systems and provide novel, compact means for image stabilization. Microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are now available for motion and vibration detection and can be used to provide mechanical sensing and compensation in optical systems.
The idea of using LC as corrective elements dates back to the early 1980s. However, at that time LC technology was not developed enough to produce usable devices. Things started to change dramatically in the early 1990s, thanks especially to display-technology research and investments. Now, LC devices are available for use in laboratory setups and first telescope demonstrations.
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