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Chapter 9:
Control of Operations
Once a set of superior processes and control methodologies has been developed, additional actions are required for these to be made operational. Implementation ultimately involves a large number of operators, technicians, engineers, and supervisors, all of whom need to apply techniques consistently and must work in coordination with each other. It is a sad fact that excellent technology has often failed to become a reality in manufacturing because of inadequate implementation. Operational considerations, such as documentation, are essential for successfully controlling processes, and lithography engineers and managers must address these issues as well as purely technical matters. Unsuccessful implementation often results even when attention is paid to operational matters, but inadequate methods are used. The first section of this chapter covers the theory of self-control, which provides a framework for engineers and managers to implement processes and procedures successfully. A key implementation tool, documentation, is covered in the next section. This chapter, and the text, is concluded with a discussion of ISO 9000, the quality standard which identifies the most essential elements of any quality control program.
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