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Adult stem cells are found in many tissues and organs, including the brain, blood, bone, skin, lungs, and liver. They usually stay in a special microenvironment called “stem cell niche.” They remain quiescent under normal conditions and become activated when there is a need to repair injury or maintain tissue. Stem cells are a very promising subject for regenerative medicine to treat injury and disease. However, when isolated and cultured in vitro or ex vivo, the stem cells have limited capacity to proliferate and differentiate, which makes it difficult to grow large quantities of stem cells for medical applications. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation of many kinds of cultured cells, including stem cells. The augmentation of stem-cell-based therapies to modulate the regenerative process through LLLT holds great potential. The mechanisms of action, the effects of LLLT on stem cells, and the potential applications of LLLT on stem-cell-based treatment are discussed in this chapter.
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