Adult stem cells are found in many tissues and organs, including the brain,
blood, bone, skin, lungs, and liver. They usually stay in a special microenvironment called “stem cell niche.” They remain quiescent under normal
conditions and become activated when there is a need to repair injury or
maintain tissue. Stem cells are a very promising subject for regenerative
medicine to treat injury and disease. However, when isolated and cultured
in vitro or ex vivo, the stem cells have limited capacity to proliferate and
differentiate, which makes it difficult to grow large quantities of stem cells for
medical applications. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated
to stimulate the proliferation of many kinds of cultured cells, including stem
cells. The augmentation of stem-cell-based therapies to modulate the
regenerative process through LLLT holds great potential. The mechanisms
of action, the effects of LLLT on stem cells, and the potential applications of
LLLT on stem-cell-based treatment are discussed in this chapter.
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