Assembly of two or more optical components such as lenses, window, or filters into a common mechanical surround generally involves multiple application of the basic mounting techniques discussed in Chapter 3. We discuss here several technical requirements unique to multiple-component optical assemblies not previously considered in this book. These include the design and fabrication of spacers that are commonly used to separate adjacent components in a cell, barrel, or housing; assembly techniques (drop-in, lathe, poker-chip, and modular) that provide varying degrees of control over intercomponent alignment; techniques for sealing and purging completed assemblies; mechanisms for moving one or more lenses relative to other lenses for system focus adjustment and/or focal length variation; and techniques commonly used for passive compensation of focus changes with temperature. Numerous hardware design examples illustrate the various types of construction described.
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