Knowledge of microscope design is rapidly becoming more important. Microscopes are used in critical applications such as drug development, clinical tests, and genomics. Considerable expertise is required for the evaluation, design, and manufacture of these instruments. Several subsystems must be integrated: the source, the illumination optics, the specimen, the objective lens, the tube optics, and the sensor. The large numerical aperture of a microscope is essential for small spot size and high brightness; however, the large numerical aperture also presents difficult issues in optical design and fabrication.
This book provides a foundation for developing design expertise through education, practice, and exploration. It is suitable for lens designers, optical engineers, and students with a basic knowledge of microscope structure.
This book provides an introduction to optical design as it pertains to microscopes. The large numerical aperture of a microscope creates issues that are not present in systems such as telescopes and cameras. The importance of microscope design is growing rapidly in 2010.
Microscopes are frequently employed in drug development, clinical tests, and genomics; however, one system does not fit all applications. Considerable expertise is required for the evaluation, design, and manufacture of these instruments. An integrated relationship must be established between several subsystems: the source, the illumination optics, the specimen, the objective lens, the tube optics, and the sensor.
In this text, the optical prescriptions are specified with glass name, refractive index, and Abbe number. Methods for color correction are described with specific materials. The anomalous partial dispersion in the blue is described for a long crown and a short flint. The origin of dispersion is related to glass composition.
As this is a tutorial, several essential topics in optics are reviewed. Geometric optics provides a simplistic description of ray tracing. Physical optics is described in two chapters: the first chapter describes the basic concepts of wave propagation with simple algebra, and the second chapter describes more advanced concepts with vector calculus. Optical aberrations describe an optical system's departure from perfection. Expressions for image contrast are defined for practical application to imaging systems. Expertise in these topics is essential for proper design of an optical instrument.
Numerous chapters rely on simple plots and basic algebra, so even a novice designer should easily comprehend the majority of chapters; however, a few chapters require comprehension of calculus, vector operations, and Fourier analysis. An expert in design should seek maximum comprehension of the chapter on advanced concepts at the end of the book.
This book provides a foundation for the development of expertise in optical design. Expertise is developed through education, practice, and exploration.
George H. Seward