The applications of plasmonic optics are critically determined by the
fabrication techniques of metallic nanostructures. In the last two decades, the developments of nanoscale material engineering have promoted the controlling and manipulating of phenomena involving SPPs and LSPRs.
The growing expertise in fabrication methods allows more ways to realize nanostructures with well-controlled patterns, sizes, and shapes. This chapter first discusses the top-down nanofabrication techniques, especially the primary fabrication processes of gold and silver nanostructures. Large-scale techniques are introduced that involve nanosphere lithography and nanoimprint lithography. The frequently used bottom-up approaches of chemical-synthesis processes are reasonably discussed for the controllable synthesis, emphasizing nanoparticles made of gold and silver with various shapes and dimensional sizes. The last section in this chapter introduces the optical characterization of nanostructures. The plasmonic properties offer useful instrumentation tools to characterize plasmonic devices, and vice versa. Although some strategies and techniques were mentioned in previous chapters, the instrument systems are highlighted here. The various employments of nanostructures, such as nanoantennas and nanoparticles, are discussed.
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