Access to eBooks is limited to institutions that have purchased or currently subscribe to the SPIE eBooks program. eBooks are not available via an individual subscription. SPIE books (print and digital) may be purchased individually on SPIE.Org.

Contact your librarian to recommend SPIE eBooks for your organization.
Chapter 1:
At the beginning of the new millennium, the invention of high-intensity and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) started a revolution in lighting technology. Their unique properties are leading to the replacement of all other light sources in general illumination devices by LEDs. The characteristics of the new LEDs are a high efficiency of electrical energy conversion into light, high reliability, long life, compact size, low cost, color variety, environmental friendliness, ability to be manufactured by very-well-developed semiconductor technologies, etc. A similar revolution is occurring for laser engineering and technology. Diode lasers are not only replacing other laser types in well-known technologies but also creating new applications. The rapid progress in fiber optics further accelerated the advancement of industrial laser technologies. Optical fibers helped to increase the power delivered by a laser beam for up to several tens of kilowatts, making lighting technologies preferable for industrial applications.
Online access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions.

Back to Top