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Chapter 11:
Three-Dimensional Metrology for Printed Electronics
The patterned deposition of solution-processed materials—referred to as printing or direct write (DW)—has evolved from simple image transfer to rapid fabrication of functional devices, including passive (interconnects, sensors, antennas) and active (batteries, transistors, solar cells) electronics. There are ongoing research efforts to directly write such devices onto low-cost flexible plastic (flexible electronics) or onto the surfaces of existing parts, or even to co-print them as embedded devices during the manufacture of “smart” parts. However, a lack of fast and accurate process monitoring for parameter feedback and detection of defects in printed structures and devices has hindered the industrialization of a functional and robust DW technology.
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