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Active systems in their simplest form are used in the typical setup shown in Fig. 1.1. A source directly €œilluminates€ the target and the reflected radiation is detected. Although many kinds of active sources can be used, most active systems use a part of the EM spectrum, such as light sources (including lasers) and radar. Radar systems can be active or passive, and can be subdivided into the following operational spectral bands.
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