28 February 2018 High accuracy mapping with cartographic assessment for a fixed-wing remotely piloted aircraft system
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Abstract
The lack of updated maps on large scale representations has encouraged the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) to generate maps for a wide range of professionals. However, some questions arise: do the orthomosaics generated by these systems have the cartographic precision required to use them? Which problems can be identified in stitching orthophotos to generate orthomosaics? To answer these questions, an aerophotogrammetric survey was conducted in an environmental conservation unit in the city of Goiânia. The flight plan was set up using the E-motion software, provided by Sensefly—a Swiss manufacturer of the RPAS Swinglet CAM used in this work. The camera installed in the RPAS was the Canon IXUS 220 HS, with the number of pixels in the sensor array of 12.1 megapixel, complementary metal oxide semiconductor 1  ∶  2.3  ?   (4000  ×  3000  pixel), horizontal and vertical pixel sizes of 1.54  μm. Using the orthophotos, four orthomosaics were generated in the Pix4D mapper software. The first orthomosaic was generated without using the control points. The other three mosaics were generated using 4, 8, and 16 premarked ground control points. To check the precision and accuracy of the orthomosaics, 46 premarked targets were uniformly distributed in the block. The three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates of the premarked targets were read on the orthomosaic and compared with the coordinates obtained by the geodetic survey real-time kinematic positioning method using the global navigation satellite system receiver signals. The cartographic accuracy standard was evaluated by discrepancies between these coordinates. The bias was analyzed by the Student’s t test and the accuracy by the chi-square probability considering the orthomosaic on a scale of 1  ∶  250, in which 90% of the points tested must have a planimetric error of <0.13  m with a standard deviation of 0.08 m and altimetric errors of <0.30  m with a standard deviation of 0.20 m. It was observed that some buildings in the orthomosaics were not properly orthorectified. The orthomosaics generated with 8 or more points reached the scale of 1  ∶  250, whereas without control points the scale was 10-fold smaller (1  ∶  3000).
© 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Leomar Rufino Alves Júnior, Leomar Rufino Alves Júnior, Manuel Eduardo Ferreira, Manuel Eduardo Ferreira, João Batista Ramos Côrtes, João Batista Ramos Côrtes, Lúcio André de Castro Jorge, Lúcio André de Castro Jorge, } "High accuracy mapping with cartographic assessment for a fixed-wing remotely piloted aircraft system," Journal of Applied Remote Sensing 12(1), 014003 (28 February 2018). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JRS.12.014003 . Submission: Received: 5 October 2017; Accepted: 11 January 2018
Received: 5 October 2017; Accepted: 11 January 2018; Published: 28 February 2018
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