Doppler beam sharpening (DBS) is a critical technology for airborne radar ground mapping in forward-squint region. In conventional DBS technology, the narrow-band Doppler filter groups formed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) method suffer from low spectral resolution and high side lobe levels. The iterative adaptive approach (IAA), based on the weighted least squares (WLS), is applied to the DBS imaging applications, forming narrower Doppler filter groups than the FFT with lower side lobe levels. Regrettably, the IAA is iterative, and requires matrix multiplication and inverse operation when forming the covariance matrix, its inverse and traversing the WLS estimate for each sampling point, resulting in a notably high computational complexity for cubic time. We propose a fast IAA (FIAA)-based super-resolution DBS imaging method, taking advantage of the rich matrix structures of the classical narrow-band filtering. First, we formulate the covariance matrix via the FFT instead of the conventional matrix multiplication operation, based on the typical Fourier structure of the steering matrix. Then, by exploiting the Gohberg–Semencul representation, the inverse of the Toeplitz covariance matrix is computed by the celebrated Levinson–Durbin (LD) and Toeplitz-vector algorithm. Finally, the FFT and fast Toeplitz-vector algorithm are further used to traverse the WLS estimates based on the data-dependent trigonometric polynomials. The method uses the Hermitian feature of the echo autocorrelation matrix R to achieve its fast solution and uses the Toeplitz structure of R to realize its fast inversion. The proposed method enjoys a lower computational complexity without performance loss compared with the conventional IAA-based super-resolution DBS imaging method. The results based on simulations and measured data verify the imaging performance and the operational efficiency.