Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is currently operated on both the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. It collects data in 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands. MODIS RSB calibration is reflectance based via an on-board solar diffuser (SD). On-orbit changes in the SD bidirectional reflectance factor are tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The SDSM functions as an independent ratioing radiometer with nine filtered detectors, covering wavelengths in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions. A brief overview of SDSM design functions, on-orbit operations, and performance for both Terra and Aqua MODIS is provided. In addition to the SD on-orbit degradation at different wavelengths, the changes in SDSM detector responses and their potential impact on tracking SD on-orbit degradation are examined. After more than 12 years of on-orbit operation, Aqua MODIS SD has shown degradation varying from 0.6% at 0.94 μm to 19.0% at 0.41 μm. Due to more frequent solar exposure and longer operation time, the Terra MODIS SD has experienced a much larger degradation, varying from 2.3% at 0.94 μm to 48.0% at 0.41 μm. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD has experienced more degradation at shorter wavelengths. Meanwhile, the SDSM detector responses have also experienced wavelength-dependent degradation. The largest change in the SDSM detector responses, however, occurred at longer NIR wavelengths. Since launch, the SDSM systems on both Terra and Aqua MODIS have continued their nominal operations, enabling critical parameters to be derived in support of the RSB on-orbit calibration. The calibration strategies developed for and lessons learned from MODIS SDSM operations, and a preliminary performance comparison with the S-NPP VIIRS SDSM are discussed.