Wavefront sensors (WFSs) encode phase information of an incoming wavefront into an intensity pattern that can be measured on a camera. Several kinds of WFSs are used in astronomical adaptive optics. Among them, Fourier-based WFSs perform a filtering operation on the wavefront in the focal plane. The most well-known example of a WFS of this kind is the Zernike WFS. The pyramid WFS also belongs to this class. Based on this same principle, WFSs can be proposed, such as the n-faced pyramid (which ultimately becomes an axicon) or the flattened pyramid, depending on whether the image formation is incoherent or coherent. To test such concepts, the LAM/ONERA on-sky pyramid sensor (LOOPS) adaptive optics testbed hosted at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille has been upgraded by adding a spatial light modulator (SLM). This device, placed in a focal plane produces high-definition phase masks that mimic otherwise bulk optic devices. We first present the optical design and upgrades made to the experimental setup of the LOOPS bench. Then, we focus on the generation of the phase masks with the SLM and the implications of having such a device in a focal plane. Finally, we present the first closed-loop results in either static or dynamic mode with different WFS applied on the SLM.
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