Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women, in part because of the limited knowledge about early stage disease. We develop a novel rat model of ovarian cancer and perform a pilot study to examine the harvested ovaries with complementary optical imaging modalities. Rats are exposed to repeated daily dosing (20 days) with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to cause early ovarian failure (model for postmenopause), and ovaries are directly exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to cause abnormal ovarian proliferation and neoplasia. Harvested ovaries are examined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and light-induced fluorescence (LIF) at one, three, and five months post-DMBA treatment. VCD causes complete ovarian follicle depletion within 8 months after onset of dosing. DMBA induces abnormal size, cysts, and neoplastic changes. OCT successfully visualizes normal and abnormal structures (e.g., cysts, bursa, follicular remnant degeneration) and the LIF spectra show statistically significant changes in the ratio of average emission intensity at 390:450 nm between VCD-treated ovaries and both normal cycling and neoplastic DMBA-treated ovaries. Overall, this pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of both the novel animal model for ovarian cancer and the ability of optical imaging techniques to visualize ovarian function and health.