The possibility of measuring subnanometer motions with micron scale spatial resolution in the intact mammalian cochlea using Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) is demonstrated. A novel DOCM system is described that uses two acousto-optic modulators to generate a stable 500-kHz heterodyne frequency. Images and motion measurements are obtained using phase-resolved analysis of the interference signal. The DOCM system permits imaging with micron-scale resolution and 85-dB sensitivity and motion measurements with 100-kHz bandwidth, directional discrimination, and 30-pm/Hz0.5 noise floor. Images and motion measurements are presented that demonstrate the ability to resolve motions of structures of interest in a mammalian cochlea in vitro including the basilar membrane, reticular lamina, tectorial membrane, and outer hair cells.