A board-level broadband frequency domain photon migration (mini-FDPM) instrument has been constructed to replace a conventional network-analyzer-based FDPM instrument. The mini-FDPM instrument with four wavelengths (681, 783, 823, and 850 nm), matches conventional FDPM instrument in performance (-88 dBm noise level, 100 dB dynamic range) and bandwidth (1 GHz), and recovers the same optical properties within about 6% in absorption and 4% in reduced scattering for liquid phantoms covering a wide range of relevant optical properties. Compared to the conventional FDPM instrument, the mini-FDPM instrument is more than 5× faster (~200 ms per 401 modulation frequencies) and several orders of magnitude less in size and cost. Standard fiber-optic-based probes can be used with the mini-FDPM instrument, which increases applications in a number of clinically relevant measurement scenarios. By drastically reducing size and cost, FDPM miniaturization lowers barriers to access and will help promote FDPM in clinical research problems. The mini-FDPM instrument forms the core of a modular broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy instrument that can be used for a variety of clinical problems in imaging and functional monitoring (i.e., breast/skin cancer, brain activation, and exercise physiology).