1 May 2008 Effect of refractive index on the fluorescence lifetime of green fluorescent protein
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The average fluorescence lifetime of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) in solution is a function of the refractive index of its environment. We report that this is also the case for GFP-tagged proteins in cells. Using time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)–based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a confocal scanning microscope, images of GFP-tagged proteins in cells suspended in different refractive index media are obtained. It is found that the average fluorescence lifetime of GFP decreases on addition of glycerol or sucrose to the media in which the fixed cells are suspended. The inverse GFP lifetime is proportional to the refractive index squared. This is the case for GFP-tagged major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins with the GFP located inside the cytoplasm, and also for GPI-anchored GFP that is located outside the cell membrane. The implications of these findings are discussed with regard to total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) techniques where the change in refractive index is crucial in producing an evanescent wave to excite fluorophores near a glass interface. Our findings show that the GFP fluorescence lifetime is shortened in TIRF microscopy in comparison to confocal microscopy.
© (2008) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Carolyn L. Tregidgo, Carolyn L. Tregidgo, James A. Levitt, James A. Levitt, Klaus Suhling, Klaus Suhling, } "Effect of refractive index on the fluorescence lifetime of green fluorescent protein," Journal of Biomedical Optics 13(3), 031218 (1 May 2008). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2937212 . Submission:

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