1 July 2008 Resonance Raman measurements of carotenoids using light-emitting diodes
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J. of Biomedical Optics, 13(4), 044026 (2008). doi:10.1117/1.2952075
We report on the development of a compact commercial instrument for measuring carotenoids in skin tissue. The instrument uses two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for dual-wavelength excitation and four photomultiplier tubes for multichannel detection. Bandpass filters are used to select the excitation detection wavelengths. The f/1.3 optical system has high optical throughput and single photon sensitivity, both of which are crucial in LED-based Raman measurements. We employ a signal processing technique that compensates for detector drift and error. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the LED Raman instrument compares favorably to laser-based Raman spectrometers. This compact, portable instrument is used for noninvasive measurement of carotenoid molecules in human skin with a repeatability better than 10%.
Scott D. Bergeson, Justin B. Peatross, N. Jay Eyring, John F. Fralick, D. N. Stevenson, Scott B. Ferguson, "Resonance Raman measurements of carotenoids using light-emitting diodes," Journal of Biomedical Optics 13(4), 044026 (1 July 2008). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2952075

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