Minimally invasive imaging of ocular surface pathologies aims at securing clinical diagnosis without actual tissue probing. For this matter, confocal microscopy (Cornea Module) is in daily use in ophthalmic practice. Multiphoton microscopy is a new optical technique that enables high-resolution imaging and functional analysis of living tissues based on tissue autofluorescence. This study was set up to compare the potential of a multiphoton microscope (DermaInspect) to the Cornea Module. Ocular surface pathologies such as pterygia, papillomae, and nevi were investigated in vivo using the Cornea Module and imaged immediately after excision by DermaInspect. Two excitation wavelengths, fluorescence lifetime imaging and second-harmonic generation (SHG), were used to discriminate different tissue structures. Images were compared with the histopathological assessment of the samples. At wavelengths of 730 nm, multiphoton microscopy exclusively revealed cellular structures. Collagen fibrils were specifically demonstrated by second-harmonic generation. Measurements of fluorescent lifetimes enabled the highly specific detection of goblet cells, erythrocytes, and nevus-cell clusters. At the settings used, DermaInspect reaches higher resolutions than the Cornea Module and obtains additional structural information. The parallel detection of multiphoton excited autofluorescence and confocal imaging could expand the possibilities of minimally invasive investigation of the ocular surface toward functional analysis at higher resolutions.