When a large, highly absorbing breast lesion is imaged by optical tomography in reflection geometry, most of the photons are absorbed by the top portion of the lesion. As a result, the lower portion of the lesion is not quantified correctly. This posterior light shadowing effect is similar to the sound shadowing effect frequently seen in pulse-echo ultrasound images. The presence of significant posterior shadowing of a lesion in ultrasound images suggests malignance. The light shadowing effect due to optical contrast is characterized using a simple measure and validated by the Monte Carlo photon-tracking method and phantom experiments. Clinical examples of large malignant and benign lesions are presented to demonstrate the shadowing effect and the utility of the measure. Understanding and quantifying the shadowing effect due to optical contrast is important for characterizing larger malignant cancers from benign lesions.
"Light shadowing effect of large breast lesions imaged by optical tomography in reflection geometry," Journal of Biomedical Optics 15(3), 036003 (1 May 2010). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3431086