Nonablative thermal laser therapy with a 1540-nm laser induces controlled, spatially determined thermal damage, allowing subsequent collagen remodeling while preserving the epidermis. A photorejuvenation effect using nonthermal nonablative stimulation of cells with low energy and narrow band light has been termed photomodulation. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are narrow band emitters that lead to photomodulation via stimulation of mitochondrial cell organelles. In a previous study, we demonstrated in a human skin explant model that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a pivotal role in the initiation of skin remodeling after ablative fractional photothermolysis. To test its importance in nonablative laser therapy and photomodulation, the spatio-temporal expression of HSP70 is investigated in response to a 1540-nm laser treatment and six different LED therapies. An Er:glass laser is used with a 1-Hz repetition rate, 30-J/cm2 fluence, and a hand piece with a 2-mm spot size. Nonthermal nonablative treatment is performed using two LED (LEDA SCR red light: 635 nm, 40 to 120 W/cm2, 40 to 120 J/cm2; LEDA SCR yellow light: 585 nm, 16 to 35 W/cm2, 20 to 100 J/cm2; spot size 16×10 cm). Immediate responses as well as responses 1, 3, or 7 days postprocedure are studied; untreated skin explants serve as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (HSP70) is performed in all native, nontreated, and Er:glass laser- or LED-treated samples (n=175). Nonablative laser therapy leads to a clear time-dependent induction of epidermally expressed HSP70, peaking between one to three days post-treatment. In contrast, none of the various LED treatments up-regulated the HSP70 expression in our skin explant model. HSP70 is up-regulated by nonablative but thermal laser devices, but does not seem to play a significant role in the induction of skin remodeling induced by photomodulation.