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We report a new type of refractive index-based biosensor using a fiber loop ringdown evanescent field (FLRD-EF) sensing scheme, in which the sensing signal is a time constant and detection sensitivity is enhanced by the multipass nature of the ringdown technique. Bulk index-based detections of three different single strand DNAs and one type of bacteria are demonstrated for the FLRD-EF sensors that utilize a partially-etched single mode fiber as the sensor head. Stepwise coating of the sensor head with poly-L-lysine and a probe DNA has enabled surface index-based label-free target DNA sensing. We expect an array of FLRD-EF biosensors to be created, which are superior to counterparts in terms of simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity.