Tomographic images of the optical properties can be reconstructed using inversion algorithms for diffuse optical tomography (DOT); however, changes in the optode coupling that occurs while obtaining an object's measurements may often lead to the presence of artifacts in the reconstructed images. To reduce the number of artifacts induced by optode coupling, previous studies have introduced (unknown) coupling coefficients in reconstruction algorithms, which were found to be effective for continuous wave- and frequency-domain DOT. This study aims to investigate the effects of optode calibration on the reconstructed images of time-domain DOT. Here, coupling coefficients are incorporated into the time-domain DOT algorithm based on a modified generalized pulse spectrum technique. The images of the absorption coefficient are reconstructed in various numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo experiments of time-domain DOT. As a result, the artifacts resulting from changes in optode coupling are reduced in the reconstructed images of the absorption coefficient, thereby demonstrating that introduction of coupling coefficients is effective in time-domain DOT. Moreover, numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo studies have validated this algorithm.