1 September 2011 Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm
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Abstract
A high-speed and hardware-only algorithm using a center of mass method has been proposed for single-detector fluorescence lifetime sensing applications. This algorithm is now implemented on a field programmable gate array to provide fast lifetime estimates from a 32 × 32 low dark count 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) plus time-to-digital converter array. A simple look-up table is included to enhance the lifetime resolvability range and photon economics, making it comparable to the commonly used least-square method and maximum-likelihood estimation based software. To demonstrate its performance, a widefield microscope was adapted to accommodate the SPAD array and image different test samples. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on fluorescent beads in Rhodamine 6G at a frame rate of 50 fps is also shown.
© (2011) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
David U. Li, David U. Li, David Tyndall, David Tyndall, Richard Walker, Richard Walker, Justin A. Richardson, Justin A. Richardson, Robert K. Henderson, Robert K. Henderson, Jochen Arlt, Jochen Arlt, David Stoppa, David Stoppa, Edoardo Charbon, Edoardo Charbon, } "Video-rate fluorescence lifetime imaging camera with CMOS single-photon avalanche diode arrays and high-speed imaging algorithm," Journal of Biomedical Optics 16(9), 096012 (1 September 2011). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3625288 . Submission:
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