2 August 2013 Two-color fluorescent (near-infrared and visible) triphasic perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions
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Abstract
Design and development of a new formulation as a unique assembly of distinct fluorescent reporters with nonoverlapping fluorescence spectra and a F 19 magnetic resonance imaging agent into colloidally and optically stable triphasic nanoemulsion are reported. Specifically, a cyanine dye-perfluorocarbon (PFC) conjugate was introduced into the PFC phase of the nanoemulsion and a near-infrared dye was introduced into the hydrocarbon (HC) layer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a triphasic nanoemulsion system where each oil phase, HC, and PFC are fluorescently labeled and formulated into an optically and colloidally stable nanosystem. Having, each oil phase separately labeled by a fluorescent dye allows for improved correlation between in vivo imaging and histological data. Further, dual fluorescent labeling can improve intracellular tracking of the nanodroplets and help assess the fate of the nanoemulsion in biologically relevant media. The nanoemulsions were produced by high shear processing (microfluidization) and stabilized with biocompatible nonionic surfactants resulting in mono-modal size distribution with average droplet size less than 200 nm. Nanoemulsions demonstrate excellent colloidal stability and only moderate changes in the fluorescence signal for both dyes. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of macrophages exposed to nanoemulsions shows the presence of both fluorescence agents in the cytoplasm.
© 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Sravan Kumar K. Patel, Sravan Kumar K. Patel, Michael J. Patrick, Michael J. Patrick, John A. Pollock, John A. Pollock, Jelena M. Janjic, Jelena M. Janjic, } "Two-color fluorescent (near-infrared and visible) triphasic perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions," Journal of Biomedical Optics 18(10), 101312 (2 August 2013). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.18.10.101312 . Submission:
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