A picogram-sensitive optical microfluidic biosensor using an integrated polycarbazole photodiode is developed. The photodetector is mainly composed of the blend heterojunction of poly [N-9 ′ -heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4 ′ ,7 ′ -di-2-thienyl-2 ′ ,1 ′ ,3 ′ -benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC 70 BM ) and the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transport layer. Analyte detection is accomplished via a chemiluminescent immunoassay performed in a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-gold-glass hybrid microchip, on which antibodies were immobilized and chemiluminescent horseradish peroxidase-luminol-peroxide reactions were generated. Enhanced sensor response to the chemiluminescent light is achieved by optimizing the thickness of PCDTBT: PC 70 BM and PEDOT:PSS. Using the optimized polycarbazole photodiode for detecting the human thyroid-stimulating hormone as the model target, the integrated biosensor demonstrates an excellent linearity in the range of 0.03 to 10 ng/ml with an analytical sensitivity of 68 pg/ml . The sensor response shows high specificity and reproducibility. Hormone detection in clinical samples is further demonstrated and compared with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The integrated device reported here has potential to detect other hormonal compounds or protein targets. Moreover, the presented concept enables the development of miniaturized, low-cost but highly sensitive optical microfluidic biosensors based on integrated polymer photodetectors with high potential for point-of-care diagnostics.