26 January 2016 Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion
Author Affiliations +
J. of Biomedical Optics, 21(1), 016010 (2016). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.21.1.016010
Frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) has proven to be a reliable method for quantification of tissue absolute optical properties. We present a full-sampling direct analog-to-digital conversion FD-NIR imager. While we developed this instrument with a focus on high-speed optical breast tomographic imaging, the proposed design is suitable for a wide-range of biophotonic applications where fast, accurate quantification of absolute optical properties is needed. Simultaneous dual wavelength operation at 685 and 830 nm is achieved by concurrent 67.5 and 75 MHz frequency modulation of each laser source, respectively, followed by digitization using a high-speed (180  MS/s) 16-bit A/D converter and hybrid FPGA-assisted demodulation. The instrument supports 25 source locations and features 20 concurrently operating detectors. The noise floor of the instrument was measured at <1.4  pW/√Hz, and a dynamic range of 115+ dB, corresponding to nearly six orders of magnitude, has been demonstrated. Titration experiments consisting of 200 different absorption and scattering values were conducted to demonstrate accurate optical property quantification over the entire range of physiologically expected values.
Bernhard B. Zimmermann, Qianqian Fang, David A. Boas, Stefan A. Carp, "Frequency domain near-infrared multiwavelength imager design using high-speed, direct analog-to-digital conversion," Journal of Biomedical Optics 21(1), 016010 (26 January 2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.21.1.016010


Imaging systems



Optical properties

Tissue optics


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