Laser-enhanced irrigation of complex root canals appears to be a very promising technique to improve the outcome of root canal treatment. This applies, in particular, if the technique can be effective at very low laser energies in irrigating not only the main canal but also the small lateral canals. This is important in order to avoid potential undesirable effects at higher laser energies such as temperature increase, dentin ablation, or extrusion of irrigating solution beyond the apical foramen. An improved understanding of the role of laser parameters, such as laser wavelength and pulse duration, in irrigation of lateral canals is therefore desired in order to optimize treatment efficacy. The influence of laser wavelength and pulse duration on cavitation phenomena was studied using shadow photography and a method of measuring fluid flow in lateral canals based on tracking of movements of small air bubbles naturally forming in liquid as a result of laser agitation. A simulated model of a root canal including a narrow lateral canal designed to represent typical root canal morphology was used for the water flow measurements. The following three laser wavelengths with relatively high absorption in water were studied: Er:YAG (2.94 μm), Er,Cr:YSGG (2.73 μm), and Nd:YAP (1.34 μm). Among the three wavelengths studied, the Er:YAG laser wavelength was found to be the most effective in formation of cavitation bubbles and in generating fluid motions within narrow lateral canals. A comparison between the shadow photography and fluid motion data indicates that it is the bubble’s radius and not the bubble’s volume that predominantly influences the fluid motion within lateral canals. Based on the results of our study, it appears that effective minimally invasive laser-assisted irrigation can be performed with low Er:YAG laser pulse energies below 10 mJ.