Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is being increasingly applied to affective and social neuroscience research; however, the reliability of this method is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the test–retest reliability of the fNIRS-based prefrontal response to emotional stimuli. Twenty-six participants viewed unpleasant and neutral pictures, and were simultaneously scanned by fNIRS in two sessions three weeks apart. The reproducibility of the prefrontal activation map was evaluated at three spatial scales (mapwise, clusterwise, and channelwise) at both the group and individual levels. The influence of the time interval was also explored and comparisons were made between longer (intersession) and shorter (intrasession) time intervals. The reliabilities of the activation map at the group level for the mapwise (up to 0.88, the highest value appeared in the intersession assessment) and clusterwise scales (up to 0.91, the highest appeared in the intrasession assessment) were acceptable, indicating that fNIRS may be a reliable tool for emotion studies, especially for a group analysis and under larger spatial scales. However, it should be noted that the individual-level and the channelwise fNIRS prefrontal responses were not sufficiently stable. Future studies should investigate which factors influence reliability, as well as the validity of fNIRS used in emotion studies.