Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating consequence of cancer treatment that could be treated with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT); however, there is no consensus about its dosimetric parameters for OM healing. The aim of this study was to compare different PBMT protocols on OM treatment, through clinical and histological analysis. Thirty hamsters were used, in an induced model of OM by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and superficial scratching, in seven days of follow-up. The animals were divided into five groups: control (C), which received only anesthesia and chemotherapeutic vehicle; chemotherapy (Ch), which received anesthesia, 5-FU, and scratches; laser 1 (L1), the same as Ch group, PBMT
and 0.24 J (one point); laser 2 (L2), the same as Ch group, PBMT
and 1 J (one point); and laser 3 (L3), the same as Ch group, PBMT 4 points of 0.24 J and
each. The laser used has
of spot area, and 40 mW. The best PBMT protocol to maintain lowest OM levels compared to Ch group was L1, followed by L2 and L3. Our results suggest that the application mode of PBMT and the energy delivered per area could interfere with the OM healing.