This paper relates to the improvement of conventional surgical stereo microscopy via the application of digital recording devices and adaptive optics. The research is aimed at improving the working conditions of the surgeon during the operation, such that free head movement is possible. The depth clues known from conventional stereo microscopy in interaction with the human eye’s functionality, such as convergence, disparity, angular elevation, parallax, and accommodation, are implemented in a digital recording system via adaptive optomechanical components. Two laterally moving pupil apertures have been used mimicking the digital implementation of the eye’s vergence and head motion. The natural eye’s accommodation is mimicked via the application of a tunable lens. Additionally, another system has been built, which enables tracking the surgeon’s eye pupil through a digital displaying stereoscopic microscope to supply the necessary information for steering the recording system. The optomechanical design and experimental results for both systems, digital recording stereoscopic microscope and pupil tracking system, are shown.