9 June 2017 Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy
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Abstract
Treatment of dandruff condition usually involves use of antidandruff shampoos containing antifungal agents. Different antifungal agents show variable clinical efficacy based on their cutaneous distribution and bioavailability. Using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), we mapped the distribution of unlabeled low-molecular weight antifungal compounds zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and climbazole (CBZ) on the surface of intact porcine skin with cellular precision. SRS has sufficient chemical selectivity and sensitivity to detect the agents on the skin surface based on their unique chemical motifs that do not occur naturally in biological tissues. Moreover, SRS is able to correlate the distribution of the agents with the morphological features of the skin using the CH 2 stretch mode, which is abundant in skin lipids. This is a significant strength of the technique since it allows the microscopic accumulation of the agents to be correlated with physiological features and their chemical environment without the use of counter stains. Our findings show that due to its lower solubility, ZnPT coats the surface of the skin with a sparse layer of crystals in the size range of 1 to 4    μ m . This is consistent with the current understanding of the mode of action of ZnPT. In contrast, CBZ being more soluble and hydrophobic resulted in diffuse homogeneous distribution. It predominantly resided in microscopic lipid-rich crevasses and penetrated up to 60    μ m into the infundibular spaces surrounding the hair shaft. The ability of the SRS to selectively map the distribution of agents on the skin’s surface has the potential to provide insight into the mechanisms underpinning the topical application of antifungal or skin-active agents that could lead to the rational engineering of enhanced formulations.
© 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Bhumika Singh, Bhumika Singh, Natalie L. Garrett, Natalie L. Garrett, Andrew Jones, Andrew Jones, Julian Moger, Julian Moger, "Imaging microscopic distribution of antifungal agents in dandruff treatments with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Journal of Biomedical Optics 22(6), 066003 (9 June 2017). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.6.066003 . Submission: Received: 27 March 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017
Received: 27 March 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 9 June 2017
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